Generalities about masonry buildings and earthquakes

Masonry buildings are vulnerable under earthquakes. Their integrity is strongly influenced by type and condition of the connections between structural elements, both vertical and horizontal, connections aimed at ensuring the so-called “box effect” [1,2].
The anti-seismic devices conceived to counteract dangerous out-of-plane modes are traditionally steel or iron tie-rods, whose behavior can be brittle and unpredictable, especially in historic buildings [3].
Moreover, walls restrained by ties are subjected to a record-to-record variability [4] that makes the seismic vulnerability assessment of the Standards only partial and sometimes overconservative [5]. To limit the uncertainties in the behavior of masonry buildings restrained by tie-rods and to ensure a reliable dynamic response, LICORD has been proposed [6].
LICORD is a dissipative device conceived to mitigate, dampen and control the out-of-plane dynamic response of masonry walls during earthquakes.


[1] L. Giresini, F. Solarino, O. Paganelli, D. V. Oliveira, M. Froli (2019) One-Sided rocking analysis of corner mechanisms in masonry structures: Influence of geometry, energy dissipation, boundary conditions. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 123, 357-370, DOI: 10.1016/j.soildyn.2019.05.012.
[2] F. Solarino, D. Oliveira, L. Giresini (2019) Wall-to-horizontal diaphragm connections in historical buildings: A state-of-the-art review. Engineering Structures 199, 109559, doi: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2019.109559.
[3] Calderini C, Vecchiattini R, Battini C & Piccardo P Mechanical and metallographic characterization of iron tie-rods in masonry buildings: an experimental study. In: Van Balen & Verstrynge. ed. Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions: Anamnesis, diagnosis, therapy, controls – Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Structural Analysis of Historical Constructions, SAHC 2016. London: Taylor & Francis Group; 2016:1293–1300.
[4] F. Solarino, L. Giresini (2021) Fragility curves and seismic demand hazard analysis of rocking walls restrained with elasto-plastic ties, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 50(13), 3602-3622, DOI: 10.1002/eqe.3524
[5] L. Giresini, M. Fragiacomo, P.B. Lourenço (2015). Comparison between rocking analysis and kinematic analysis for the dynamic out-of-plane behavior of masonry walls, Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics, 44(13) 2359-2376. DOI: 10.1002/eqe.2592.
[6] L. Giresini, F. Solarino, F. Taddei, G. Mueller (2021) Experimental estimation of energy dissipation in rocking masonry walls restrained by an innovative seismic dissipator (LICORD), Bulletin of Earthquake Engineering volume 19, 2265–2289, DOI: 10.1007/s10518-021-01056-6.